Traumatic recurrent dislocation of shoulder is the frequent displacement of the humeral head out of glenoid surface. Dislocation of shoulder is mostly seen following injury to the shoulder for the first time. After that there is recurrence of shoulder dislocation in 40 % of cases within 2 years. When the frequency increases, then it is called recurrent dislocation of shoulder. Dislocation occurs either due to non-healing of the torn labrum or glenoid bone loss.
Dislocation due to labrum tear (Bankart lesion) is treated with arthroscopically assisted suture anchors. Dislocation due to glenoid bone loss is treated with Latarjet procedure which is an open or arthroscopic procedure.
Post surgery patient will be advised sling or shoulder immobiliser for 4-6 weeks and are advised for physiotherapy protocol. By 2-3 months can do normal daily activities. For sports, it takes 6-9 months.
There are four muscles which form cuff around the shoulder joint. These muscles help in elevation & rotation of the arm and stabilising the shoulder joint. When there is tear in these muscles or there attachment over humeral head, it is called rotator cuff tear.
cuff tear can be diagnosed with clinical examination and confirmed by MRI scan.
Rotator cuff tear is repaired by arthroscopy assisted suture anchors. It can also be repaired by mini open surgery.
The affected person will have difficulty in lifting weights and pain in shoulder. Later it may lead to cuff arthropathy i.e arthritis of the shoulder joint.
Post surgery the person will have shoulder immobiliser for 1 month and then will have to follow physio protocol. Will be able to do daily activities by 2-3 months and strenuous activities and sports by 9 months to 1 year.
Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive
capsulitis. It is condition where the capsule surrounding the
shoulder joint becomes inflammed and later contracts leading to
painful restriction of movements of
Frozen shouldet or adhesive capsulitis has 4 phases of disease progression.
It is a self-limiting disease with a prolonged duration of upto 2 years.
Elderly people with diabetes, hypothyroid, post cardiac surgery are most commonly but it can affect anyone.
First phase is treated with anti-inflammatory
medications and physiotherapy
Second and third phase are treated with physiotherapy first then if no response – manipulation under anaesthesia with or without arthroscopic capsule release depending on the bone quality.
Post manipulation, patient has to continue physiotherapy.
Arthroscopic release is required with long standing frozen shoulder with osteoporosis.